Why do papers turn yellow? plus 9 more videos.. #aumsum

Topic: Oxidation. Why do papers turn yellow? They really do. You don’t believe me? Alright. Then why don’t you spray some oxygen on the papers? See, I was correct. Do you know why this happens? This happens mainly because of oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical process in which a
substance combines with oxygen. Now, paper is primarily made up of wood. Wood is made up of cellulose and lignin. Now, these two components which are present in paper are susceptible to oxidation. When they are exposed to air, they are likely to combine with oxygen, causing the color of paper to change from white to yellow. But did you know that newspapers turn yellow relatively quickly as compared to books? This is because there is more lignin in newspapers than in papers made for books. Lignin is more susceptible to oxidation as
compared to cellulose. Hence, newspapers turn yellow faster than
papers of books. Topic: Oxidation. Why do copper vessels turn green? Wow. What a beautiful copper statue. Have you made it? Good job. But why did you use copper to make the statue? It will turn green after a while. No No. It will not happen immediately. It will take some time. Look. I had told you earlier. Do you know why this happened? This happened because of oxidation. Do you know what oxidation is? It is a process in which a substance gains
oxygen. When the copper statue was exposed to moisture and air for a long period of time, it started to get oxidized. In the oxidation process, its color started
changing to blackish brown. Then eventually into green. The green layer of color appeared because
of a number of chemical reactions. That took place when exposed to moisture and air. This green layer formed is called patina. No No. Don’t worry. Patina does not damage the statue. Patina is just a layer on top of the metal. It protects the copper beneath from further
oxidation, thus keeping the properties of copper intact. Topic: Cleansing ability of Soap. Why is soap ineffective in hard water? Wow. What a beautiful painting. But look at your clothes. They have become so dirty. Why don’t you wash them? No No. Don’t use that water along with soap. Please listen. Fine, then bear the consequences. See, you are not able to clean them. Do you know why? This is because you used hard water to clean your clothes. Do you know what hard water is? Hard water is the water which contains high amounts of minerals. Such as calcium and magnesium, in the form of ions. So, are these ions of the hard water responsible for soap to be ineffective? You are right. Now, to understand what actually happened, let us recall the activity. Initially, you drenched your clothes in hard
water and then you applied some soap. When we apply soap. It reacts with the calcium and magnesium ions of hard water to form insoluble precipitate called scum. Scum sticks to the clothes, restricting the
cleansing ability of the soap. Topic: Archimedes Principle. Why do we weigh less in water? Hey. Looks like you have gained a lot of weight. Come on. Let us check your weight. You weigh 132 pounds. Alright. Don’t get stressed. Check your weight in water. Look. It is much lesser. Do you know why you weighed less in water? The answer to this is based on Archimedes
Principle. Not that principal. Archimedes Principle is a fundamental truth which states that an object fully or partly immersed in a fluid. Experiences an upward force called buoyant force which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by it. It went over your head, right? No worries. Let me explain. Gravity always pulls us downwards. Hence, the weight of our body always acts
downwards whether we are on ground or in water. However, according to Archimedes Principle, when we are in water, we experience an upward force. Buoyant force which is equal
to the weight of water displaced by us. This upward force cancels a portion of our
weight causing us to weigh less in water. Topic: Newton’s Third Law of Motion. Why does a swimmer push the water backward? There is a hole in the boat. Now, how will you reach the shore? Don’t worry. Do as I say. Jump in the water and push the water backward with your hands. This will help you to move forward towards
the shore. No. You are not pushing the water backward. See. You are moving forward towards the shore. Do you know why you were able to move forward by pushing the water backward? To understand this, you need to learn about
Newton’s third law of motion. Newton’s third law of motion states that,
for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. No. Not that action. Wait, let me explain. When we swim, we apply force and push the water backward with the help of our hands. This is action. In response to this action, the water pushes us forward with an equal force. This is reaction. Thus, in order to move forward and swim, the swimmer pushes the water backward. Topic: Convex mirror. Why is a convex mirror used as a rear-view
mirror? Wow. What an amazing car. But your rear view mirror is missing. No. Don’t use a concave mirror. It will usually show you magnified images. Why don’t you listen to me? See, I was correct. Now put the convex mirror and see the result. Look. The image is much smaller, right? Do you know what the difference between the two mirrors was? If we use a concave mirror for our car, we
will not be able to see the vehicles behind us properly. This is because the concave mirror will magnify the object and we will see a very enlarged image. Thus, we require a mirror which gives us a
wider view of the vehicles behind us. In this case, a convex mirror proves to be
the right choice. This is because a convex mirror forms a highly diminished image. Thus making the traffic look much smaller. As a result, we can see a large number of
vehicles in a very small mirror. Topic: Heat. Why do woolen clothes keep us warm? The night is quite cold and you have worn
cotton clothes. Why don’t you wear some woolen clothes? They will keep you warm. Please listen to me. Look. You are shivering. At least now wear some woolen clothes. Now you are feeling warm, right? Do you know why? Wait, I will tell you. Both wool and cotton are bad conductors of heat, that is, they do not conduct or transmit heat to the surrounding. Then why do we feel warm only in woolen clothes? This is because. In woolen clothes, there are more tiny spaces as compared to that in cotton clothes. Due to these extra tiny spaces, woolen clothes trap more air as compared to cotton clothes. Now, since air is a bad conductor of heat. Woolen clothes containing more air, do not allow much of our body heat to escape into the atmosphere. Thus keeping us warm. Topic: Atmospheric Refraction. Why do stars seem higher than they actually are? Hey. That is not the actual position of the star. Please listen. Fine. Then bear the consequences. See. I told you. Do you know why this happens? This happens because of atmospheric refraction. Atmospheric refraction is the refraction or
bending of light caused by the earth’s atmosphere. It went over your head, right? No worries. Let me explain it to you in detail. In the earth’s atmosphere, the air closer to the earth’s surface is denser due to gravity. But as we move higher, the air density goes
on decreasing. This forms different media of air. The layer of air closer to the earth’s surface
forms the denser medium. While the layer of air higher up in the sky forms the rarer medium. Now, when the light of a star enters our atmosphere and passes from one medium to another. Atmospheric refraction takes place and the light bends. When this light reaches our eyes, our eyes
trace it backward as a straight line. Due to this, the light appears to come from
a higher point. Hence, the star seems to be higher than it
actually is. Topic: Gravitational Force. Why do you weigh less on the moon? Hey. What are you doing? It is not possible. You cannot fly on earth. Please listen. Look. I had warned you. Now, why don’t try the same activity on the
moon? There you will weigh much less and thus, you can fly short distances. See. I was correct. Do you know why you weighed less on the moon? To understand this, we need to first learn
about weight. No. Not those weights. Weight is the force with which an object is
pulled towards the center of the earth. Or any other celestial body. This force is called the gravitational force. Greater the gravitational force exerted by
the celestial body. More will be the weight of an object present on it. So, does this mean that the moon exerts less gravitational force than the earth? You are right. But do you know why? This is because gravitational force is directly proportional to the mass of an object. Greater the mass, greater will be the gravitational force exerted by it and thus, more will be our weight. As the moon has lesser mass than the earth. It has a weaker gravitational pull and hence, we weigh less on the moon. Topic: Pressure. Why is it difficult to cut with a blunt knife? Seems like you are hungry. Why don’t you have an apple? No. Don’t use the blunt knife. Use the sharp knife. Looks like you want to go ahead with the blunt knife only. See, you are finding it difficult to cut the
apple now. Now, try cutting with the sharp knife. Look. The apple gets cut very easily. Confused, right? Let me explain. All this happens due to a concept called pressure. What is Pressure? It is the force applied per unit area. That means the pressure will be directly proportional to force and inversely proportional to area. Now, we applied the same amount of force on both the knives. Then, why was the result different? This is because the area on which the force
acted was different. In the case of a blunt knife, the cutting
edge is thicker. That means, the area is larger. As a result, the force of our hand falls over
a larger area of the knife, producing lesser pressure. Hence, it is difficult to cut with a blunt

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

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